Att göra lärandet synligt? Individuella utvecklingsplaner och digital dokumentation
Sammanfattning: Since 2006 there have been two major changes to the Swedish Education Act. In January 2006, the first change, concerning nine-year compulsory school, took effect. The Act now requires that Personal Development Plans (i.e. individuella utvecklingsplaner – IUP) be introduced for students in elementary school, special schools for disabled children, Sami schools and special schools. The second change came into effect in July 2008. The content of the personal development plan was expanded to contain not only plans for future development, but also teachers’ written assessments of students’ knowledge and learning process. To implement the new regulations and support teachers’ work, many schools have turned to digital tools. The combination of new regulations and digital tools has generated new, unexplored circumstances for teachers, students and parents.The aim of this thesis is to provide a greater understanding of the work process with students ? personal development planning and the role of digital documentation in this process. The aim is also to investigate students’, teachers’ and guardians’ experiences and participation. The main focus is on experience of the work processes associated with the recent reform of methods for communicating students’ knowledge and learning processes. To better understand this new educational situation, students’, parents’ and teachers’ experience of working according to the new regulations has been analysed and problematized. The research questions address how the use of digital tools influences the process, in what ways the process affects students’ and parents’ participation and in what ways the students’ identity work is affected by the communication and work process. The study is based on qualitative semi-structured interviews, a survey study and a document analysis. The material was analysed through an inductive thematic analysis. The analysis draws on activity theory and theories focusing on participation at higher and lower levels, and on social relationships through concepts of power and control, as well as visible and invisible pedagogy. Patterns in the material were analysed using concepts of communicative and strategic communication, negotiation of influence, self-regulation and techniques for disciplining, positioning processes and the individual’s approach to a prevailing norm. The concept of cultural capital has also been used as an analytical concept.Students, parents and teachers all state that the process is now, finally, about the student’s personal learning. Thus, the study shows that students’ goals and personal planning do not significantly affect teaching in schools. Responsibility for achieving the goals is left to the student alone. Students can decide when and how they will work towards the goals in the plan. The follow-up process is concentrated to the discussion on progress with parents each semester where new goals are set for the student. The study also shows that the process with the personal development plans is focused on students’ behaviour and on transforming students into model students who perform at their absolute best. The study also shows that parents are entering as a new player – their child’s representative in negotiation. Teachers on the other hand are trying to manage the work process rationally by copying and pasting written opinions among several students and formulating and adapting students’ goals to suit their teaching.Students’ personal development plans are significant texts where players other than the student and his or her parents or teachers, are able to scrutinize and criticise the content as the student’s plans are public documents. All in all, the study shows that the whole work process with students’ personal development plans requires both awareness and understanding of the importance of language and wording. The work process is not only about learning; it is also about power, control and negotiation.
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