Optimisation of Chemotherapy Treatment in Advanced Colorectal Cancer

Detta är en avhandling från Uppsala : Eklundshof Grafiska AB

Sammanfattning: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignant diseases in Sweden – more than 5000 new cases are diagnosed each year. The overall five-year survival is about 60% and in cases of recurrence the prognosis is poor.In a phase III study in advanced colorectal cancer the response rate was doubled when 5-FU was given as a bolus injection versus as a short infusion. The toxicity was similar and time to progression was longer in the injection group. However, overall survival was not significantly different. Dose-effect relationships of 5-FU were studied in another phase III study recruiting 312 patients. A decrease from 500 mg/m2 to 400 mg/m2 worsened the treatment results. A low incidence of severe toxicity was seen in both groups. An increase to 600 mg/m2 worsened the toxicity without any improvement of the results.A cytotoxic drug sensitivity test in different tumour types, mainly gastrointestinal cancer, poorly predicted treatment outcome in a phase II study.The conventional Nordic Flv regimen was split in a phase I/II trial. An escalation of dose was possible and the response rate was 20%.Thymidylate synthase (TS) and the gene expression of p53 were investigated by immunohistochemical technique in the primary tumours of 132 patients. None of the markers predicted the later palliative chemotherapy result. However, TS significantly predicted time to recurrence.Serum markers were analysed before and during FLv treatment to early predict outcomes among 87 patients. TPS is promising, both as a predictive marker before start of treatment and after a short period of treatment. In the same setting, CEA had lower predictive value. S-VEGF and S-bFGF did not yield any prognostic information of later outcome. In all studies B-haemoglobin values, performance status and subjective response were strong markers, both for prediction of objective response and for survival.