Att göra sig gällande : Mångfald i förskolebarns kamratkulturer
Sammanfattning: The aim of this thesis is to describe, analyse and understand how children in preschool construct cultural diversity in their interaction. A wide definition of culture is being used, thereby stressing the cultural background of all children. The study is based on observations and conversations with children in three Swedish preschools. In observing and talking to the children the main interest has been on the extent to which experiences from the children’s individual backgrounds, called cultural impulses, are discernible in their play and interaction. In the analysis a theoretical framework of childhood sociology has been used in order to understand what meaning the children’s actions in their peer cultures have in the construction of cultural diversity. The activities going on in the peer culture have also been studied in relation to the pedagogical context. The findings show diversity within the peer group when it comes to gender and competencies but the actions within the peer cultures contain power game and inclusion as well as exclusion. These are results of hierarchies in the group, building on for example status and social position. These hierarchies are strong in the processes in which it is determined which of the cultural impulses from the children that will be a part of the play and which ones that will be rejected. In Swedish preschool one part of the pedagogical context is the seldom-questioned "fri lek". This is a period of varied length during which the children play by themselves with little or no interference from the pedagogues. The results from the observations indicate that this kind of play has very different meaning for the children. For some it is a possibility to make use of their own experiences in their peer culture and for some it means subordinating to those with higher rank in the hierarchy.
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