Experimental treatment of patients with disseminated malignant melanoma

Sammanfattning: Malignant melanoma (MM) is the deadliest skin cancer with an ever-increasing incidence. New treatments have improved the prognosis for patients with advanced MM. Still, most patients do not respond, and the side effects can be severe, underlining the need for better therapies.The overall aim of this thesis was to evaluate new means to improve the treatment for patients with advanced MM. Immunostimulatory gene therapy (AdCD40L) was evaluated in a clinical study and BRAF-inhibitory treatment in rare cases of BRAF-mutated MM.Due to its immunogenicity, MM is an attractive target for immunostimulatory gene therapy. AdCD40L is an adenovirus carrying the human gene for CD40 ligand, which in different ways can stimulate the immune system to combat cancer. We conducted a Phase I/IIa study with AdCD40L in patients with metastatic MM having received established treatments. In cohort 1 (n=6), four weekly, intratumoural AdCD40L injections were given. In cohort 2 (n=9), low dose cyclophosphamide was added to increase the immune response. Since irradiation may act synergistically with immunotherapy, patients in cohort 3 (n=9) also received a single fraction of radiotherapy (8 Gy). This fraction was given towards the lesion selected for injections.The primary objectives were to assess the feasibility and safety of AdCD40L-treatment and secondarily its anti-tumour effects. Patients were thoroughly assessed for toxicity. The anti-tumour response was evaluated by imaging techniques (FDG-PET/CT, DW-MRI scans), tumour biopsies and blood tests. Plasma protein markers were measured with a multiplex platform. Another objective was to evaluate the potential of DW-MRI and FDG-PET/CT for prediction of AdCD40L treatment response, in terms of overall survival (OS).AdCD40L was well tolerated with mild transient reactions. Local and distant responses in PET/CT scans along with a significantly better 6-month survival in the cohorts that received cyclophosphamide conditioning were observed. Effector lymphocyte responses were elicited. All patients had an increased T effector/T regulatory-cell ratio and death receptors were significantly up-regulated post therapy. Inflammatory cytokines and other plasma proteins were altered in favourable ways by the AdCD40L treatment. The analyses support that the functional DWI parameters may be better early predictors of OS than the established metabolic and morphologic criteria of FDG-PET/CT and CT/MRI, respectively.In conclusion, the stimulation of the CD40 pathway to initiate anti-tumour immunity is a promising treatment alternative for MM patients. However, further studies with developed treatment schemes are warranted.In the first report ever on treatment of a pregnant patient with a BRAF-inhibitor, the therapy was initiated in the second trimester. The treatment with vemurafenib enabled prolonged gestation, hence reducing the risk of immaturity-related complications. Further, we report the first case worldwide of a patient with metastatic conjunctival melanoma who benefitted from treatment with vemurafenib. Additional studies are needed to assess the efficacy of BRAF -inhibitors in the different subtypes of ocular melanoma.