Dynamic Organization of Molecular Machines in Bacteria
Sammanfattning: Bacterial cells were once treated as membrane-enclosed bags of cytoplasm: a homogeneous, undifferentiated suspension in which polymers (proteins, nucleic acids, etc.) and small molecules diffused freely to interact with each other. Biochemical studies have determined the molecular mechanisms underlying the biological processes of metabolism, replication and transcription-translation, etc. However, recent advancements in optical techniques armed with fluorescent tags for proteins and nucleic acids have increased our ability to peer into the interior of live bacterial cells. This has revealed an organized layout of multi-protein complexes, or molecular machines, dedicated to specific functions at defined sub-cellular locations; the timing of their assembly and/or rates of their activity being determined by available nutrition and environmental signals from the niche occupied by the organism.In the present study, we have attempted to identify the intracellular location and organization of the molecular machines assembled for protein synthesis (ribosomes), DNA replication (replisomes) and cell division (divisome) in different bacteria. We have used the model system Escherichia coli as well as Helicobacter pylori and mycobacterial strains (Mycobacterium marinum and Mycobacterium smegmatis), which grow at different rates and move to dormancy late into stationary phaseBacterial nucleoid plays a major role in organizing the location and movement of active ribosomes, replisomes and placement of divisome. While the active ribosomes appear to follow the dynamic folds of the bacterial nucleoid during cell growth in E. coli, inactive ribosomes appear to accumulate near the periphery. The replisome in H. pylori was visualized as a sharp, single focus upon SSB and DnaB co-localization in growing helical rods but disassembled into diffused fluorescence when the cells attained non-replicative coccoid stage. Our investigation into mycobacterial life-cycle revealed unique features such as an absence of a dedicated mid-cell site for divisome assembly and endosporulation upon entry into stationary phase.In brief, we present the cell cycle-dependent subcellular organization of molecular machines in bacteria.
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