Electromagnetic characterization of power electronic systems
Sammanfattning: Propelled by increased global awareness and demand for clean energy systems, there is a growing trend in transportation, utility, industrial, and residential applications towards the utilisation of power electronic systems with enhanced power ow controllability and eciency. Examples of power electronics applications include terminal converters in high-voltage direct Current (HVDC) transmission; exible AC transmission systems (FACTS); and converters to interface alternative energy systems such as wind turbines to the grid, variable-speed motor drives in pump systems, vehicular propulsion systems, air-conditioners, and refrigerators. The basic functionality of power electronic components is achieved by switching high voltages and currents. Recent advancements in semiconductor technology have significantly improved the current and voltage handling capabilities and the switching frequencies of power electronic devices. However, this rapid switching of high currents and voltages in turn generates electromagnetic disturbances that could distort the functionality of the power electronic equipment and other devices in the vicinity. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) regulations and functionality requirements impose restrictions on the design of power electronic systems. To design robust power electronic systems, a thorough understanding of the related electromagnetic issues is required. This thesis focuses on the EMC characterisation of power electronic systems and contains two major phases. In the first phase, the high frequency characterisation of air-core reactors was considered. Air-core reactors are typically used in power systems for current limiting, ltering, shunting, and neutral grounding applications. It is of interest to understand the behaviour of air-core reactors in the presence of high frequency signals, especially from switching operations in the power electronic components. Using the partial element equivalent circuit (PEEC) approach, air-core reactor models, helpful in design and electromagnetic analysis, were created. The PEEC models were able to predict the current and voltage distributions and the eventual electromagnetic emissions at different frequencies. The second phase involved the characterisation of electromagnetic emissions from PWM drives using both modeling and measurement. A case study was performed on a prototype hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). Typically, emissions from PWM drives are expected at harmonics of the PWM switching frequency (fc) and harmonics of the fundamental frequency (f0) of the phase voltages. In this study, it was established that space vector PWM drives generate low-frequency pulsating (LFP) emissions at a frequency of 6f0. The switching of voltage vectors generates common mode current spikes because of the presence of stray capacitances and inductances. The spikes superpose across sector boundaries, forming spikes of double or triple amplitude that constitute the LFP emissions. The amplitudes of these ulsations were shown to be dependent on the drive parameters, suchas the load, the speed, and the voltage slew rates. These common mode emissions enhance the emissions at harmonics of the switching frequency, create low-frequency emissions, and when injected into an electric motor, could cause torque pulsations and speed uctuations that may degrade drive functionality. Measurements from an HEV prototype show the LFP emissions, and theoretical models were developed to characterise them.
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