Fundamental Insights into the Electrochemistry of Tin Oxide in Lithium-Ion Batteries

Detta är en avhandling från Uppsala : Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis

Sammanfattning: This thesis aims to provide insight into the fundamental electrochemical processes taking place when cycling SnO2 in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Special attention was paid to the partial reversibility of the tin oxide conversion reaction and how to enhance its reversibility. Another main effort was to pinpoint which limitations play a role in tin based electrodes besides the well-known volume change effect in order to develop new strategies for their improvement. In this aspect, Li+ mass transport within the electrode particles and the large first cycle charge transfer resistance were studied. Li+ diffusion was proven to be an important issue regarding the electrochemical cycling of SnO2. It was also shown that it is the Li+ transport inside the SnO2 particles which represents the largest limitation. In addition, the overlap between the potential regions of the tin oxide conversion and the alloying reaction was investigated with photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) to better understand if and how the reactions influence each other`s reversibility.The fundamental insights described above were subsequently used to develop strategies for the improvement of the performance and the cycle life for SnO2 electrodes in LIBs. For instance, elevated temperature cycling at 60 oC was employed to alleviate the Li+ diffusion limitation effects and, thus, significantly improved capacities could be obtained. Furthermore, an ionic liquid electrolyte was tested as an alternative electrolyte to cycle at higher temperatures than 60 oC which is the thermal stability limit for the conventional LP40 electrolyte. In addition, cycled SnO2 nanoparticles were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the effects of long term high temperature cycling. Also, the effect of vinylene carbonate (VC) as an electrolyte additive on the cycling behavior of SnO2 nanoparticles was studied in an effort to improve the capacity retention. In this context, a recently introduced intermittent current interruption (ICI) technique was employed to measure and compare the development of internal cell resistances with and without VC additive.