Cooperation in local electricity markets : modelling of technical measures
Sammanfattning: This thesis presents a system analysis for co-operation in local electricity markets including distributors and customers. The purpose of co-operation is to minimise the system cost of local markets by introducing system measures, such as end-use measures and municipal co-generation plants. Co-operation will strengthen the position of local markets in the national as well as future international electricity markets. With end-use measures local markets will achieve flexibility, additional reserve capacity and ability to avoid sudden large costs for peak loads. Biomass-fired cogeneration plants can become of great importance in an international market. In Sweden there is a simultaneous demand for electricity and district heating, many local markets already include district heating systems and there are major forest areas which can contribute with renewable fuel. The system analysis is partly based on the simulation model (INDSIM) and the linear programming model (MODEST). The simulation model has been further developed (STRATO) to include calculation of system costs. Shadow price analysis has been developed in order to study incentives for system measures. Calculation procedures have been developed that describe cooperation between distributor and customer. Six case studies of a selection of real, existing local markets in Sweden are presented. The studies show the potential economical effects of co-operation measured by system costs and shadow prices. Co-operation has been considered between demand- and supply-side, electricity- and district heating systems and also between different time periods. In a typical local market with 90 000 inhabitants, if end use measures are introduced without cooperation the system cost of the distributor will increase by 14 million SEK for a time period of 25 years. If instead end-use measures are introduced in co-operation, together with a biomass-fired cogeneration plant, the system cost of the local market will be reduced by 444 million SEK. Furthermore, the use of biomass in the local market is increased from 36 to 72 % while the use of oil is decreased from 34 to 1%. Another case study of another local market (50 000 inhabitants) shows that end-use measures will reduce the system cost (excluding investment costs) of an industry by 50 % corresponding to 1.3 million SEK for one year. The end-use measures imply reduced power demand during peak load periods in the local market and increased power demand during non- peak load periods.
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