Relict non-glacial surfaces and autochthonous blockfields in the northern Swedish mountains
Sammanfattning: Relict non-glacial surfaces occur in many formerly glaciated landscapes, where they represent areas that have escaped significant glacial modification. Frequently distinguished by blockfield mantles, relict non-glacial surfaces are important archives of long-term weathering and landscape evolution processes. The aim of this thesis is to examine the distribution, weathering, ages, and formation of relict non-glacial surfaces in the northern Swedish mountains.Mapping of surfaces from aerial photographs and analysis in a GIS revealed five types of relict non-glacial surfaces that reflect differences in surface process types or rates according to elevation, gradient, and bedrock lithology. Clast characteristics and fine matrix granulometry, chemistry, and mineralogy reveal minimal chemical weathering of the blockfields.Terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides were measured in quartz samples from two blockfield-mantled summits and a numerical ice sheet model was applied to account for periods of surface burial beneath ice sheets and nuclide production rate changes attributable to glacial isostasy. Total surface histories for each summit are almost certainly, but not unequivocally, confined to the Quaternary. Maximum modelled erosion rates are as low as 4.0 mm/kyr, which is likely to be near the low extreme for relict non-glacial surfaces in this landscape.The blockfields of the northern Swedish mountains are Quaternary features formed through subsurface physical weathering processes. While there is no need to appeal to Neogene chemical weathering to explain blockfield origins, these surfaces have remained continuously regolith-mantled and non-glacial since their inception. Polygenetic surface histories are therefore indicated, where the large-scale surface morphologies are potentially older than their regolith mantles.
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