On Physical Relations in Driving: Judgements, Cognition and Perception
Sammanfattning: Drivers need to make judgements of physical relationships related to driving speed, such as mean speed, risks, travel time and fuel consumption, in order to make optimal choices of vehicle speed. This is also the case for the general public, politicians and other stakeholders who are engaged in traffic issues. This thesis investigates how drivers’ judgements of travel time (Study I and II), fuel consumption (Study III) and mean speed (Study IV) relate to actual physical measures.A cognitive time-saving bias has been found in judgements of travel time. The time saving bias implies that people overestimate the time saved when increasing speed from a high speed and underestimate the time saved when increasing speed from a low speed. Previous studies have mainly investigated the bias from a cognitive perspective in questionnaires. In Study I the bias was shown to be present when participants were engaged in a driving simulator task where participants primarily rely on perceptual cues. Study II showed that intuitive time saving judgements can be debiased by presenting drivers with an alternative speedometer that indicate the inverted speed in minutes per kilometre.In Study III, judgements of fuel consumption at increasing and decreasing speeds were examined, and the results showed systematic deviations from correct measures. In particular, professional truck drivers underestimated the fuel saving effect of a decrease in speed. Study IV showed that subjective mean speed judgements differed from objective mean speeds and could predict route choice better than objective mean speeds. The results indicate that biases in these judgements are robust and that they predict behaviour.The thesis concludes that judgements of mean speeds, time savings and fuel consumption systematically deviate from physical measures. The results have implications for predicting travel behaviour and the design of driver feedback systems.
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