Effects of Selection and Demography on DNA Polymorphism in Black Mustard (Brassica nigra)
Sammanfattning: The evolution of three genes from the CONSTANS-LIKE gene family is studied in Brassica nigra. We use a combination of population genetic and phylogenetic techniques in order to assess the relative importance of selection and demography on the pattern of DNA variation. The analysis is complicated by the fact that they are recent duplicates of each other and hence there is a potential redundancy factor that has to be considered. The relationship between two of the genes, COa and COb, is however much closer than between any relationship to the third gene, COL1. The three genes are all suspected to play a part in the natural variation of flowering time of B. nigra. The thesis consists of four papers. The first paper is a technical paper concerning when and if the existence of an effective population size can be assumed. More specifically, the impact of population structure and a fluctuating (census) population size on the standard coalescent is studied. The second paper is a population genetic study of B. nigra using micro-satellites and RFLP. The resulting population genetic structure is argued to reflect the early spread of agriculture in Europe. In the third paper the general evolution of the three genes is studied. We find that not all aspects of the data could be accounted for by demography or redundancy effects, but that selection most likely played a part in the evolution of these genes. The fourth paper concerns the functional status of COb, whether it is a pseudogene or not. The most likely scenario is that COb recently became non-functional due to the fixation of a deleterious mutation during a recent bottleneck.
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