Impact of Metallic Projectiles on a Ceramic Target Surface : Transition Between Interface Defeat and Penetration

Sammanfattning: The purpose of this thesis is to gain understanding of the load on flat target surfaces produced by projectile impact. Models are proposed from which upper and lower bounds can be derived for the transition be-tween interface defeat and normal penetration.It is shown that the dominating contribution to the normal load is generally provided by the hydrodynamic pressure due to the effect of inertia. In addition it is shown that the contributions from yield strength and compressibility are also significant. For a cylindrical tungsten alloy projectile at an impact velocity representative of to-day’s ordnance velocities, the contributions to the load intensity on the axis of symmetry from yield strength and compressibility are shown to be 15% and 3.4%, respectively, of that of inertia.Impact tests have shown that for conical projectiles transition from interface defeat to penetration occurs at a significantly lower impact velocity than for cylindrical projectiles. In order to better understand the influence of projectile shape, a conical projectile in axi-symmetric impact is studied by use of an analytical model for self-similar flow, and the results obtained are compared to results of numerical simula-tions. It is shown how the maximum load intensity, and the position of the maximum, depends on the apex angle. For an apex angle of 90º, the maximum load intensity is found to be almost three times that pro-duced by a cylindrical projectile with the same impact velocity. This maximum occurs well off the axis of symmetry and is 20% larger than the load intensity at this axis. Both the self-similar model and the nu-merical simulations show that the contribution to the load intensity from compressibility is positive below and negative above an apex angle of around 80º. The contribution of yield strength to the load in-tensity at centre of impact depends only weakly on the apex angle and is therefore similar to that of a cylindrical projectile.