Materials for High-Temperature Catalytic Combustion

Detta är en avhandling från Stockholm : Kemiteknik

Sammanfattning: Catalytic combustion is an environmentally friendlytechnique to combust fuels in e.g. gas turbines. Introducing acatalyst into the combustion chamber of a gas turbine allowscombustion outside the normal flammability limits. Hence, theadiabatic flame temperature may be lowered below the thresholdtemperature for thermal NOXformation while maintaining a stable combustion.However, several challenges are connected to the application ofcatalytic combustion in gas turbines. The first part of thisthesis reviews the use of catalytic combustion in gas turbines.The influence of the fuel has been studied and compared overdifferent catalyst materials.The material section is divided into two parts. The firstconcerns bimetallic palladium catalysts. These catalysts showeda more stable activity compared to their pure palladiumcounterparts for methane combustion. This was verified both byusing an annular reactor at ambient pressure and a pilot-scalereactor at elevated pressures and flows closely resembling theones found in a gas turbine combustor.The second part concerns high-temperature materials, whichmay be used either as active or washcoat materials. A novelgroup of materials for catalysis, i.e. garnets, has beensynthesised and tested in combustion of methane, a low-heatingvalue gas and diesel fuel. The garnets showed some interestingabilities especially for combustion of low-heating value, LHV,gas. Two other materials were also studied, i.e. spinels andhexaaluminates, both showed very promising thermal stabilityand the substituted hexaaluminates also showed a good catalyticactivity.Finally, deactivation of the catalyst materials was studied.In this part the sulphur poisoning of palladium, platinum andthe above-mentioned complex metal oxides has been studied forcombustion of a LHV gas. Platinum and surprisingly the garnetwere least deactivated. Palladium was severely affected formethane combustion while the other washcoat materials were mostaffected for carbon monoxide and hydrogen.Keywords:catalytic combustion, catalyst materials,palladium, platinum, bimetallic, garnet, spinel, hexaaluminate,deactivation, sulphur, poisoning, diesel, methane,hydrocarbons