Stimuli-Responsive Materials Derived from Cellulose Nanofibrils : Synthesis, characterization, and performance evaluation

Sammanfattning: This thesis presents a comprehensive study on stimuli-responsive materials derived from cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs), focusing on their synthesis, characterization, and performance evaluation in various applications. Renowned for their biodegradability, renewability, and robust mechanical properties, CNFs are explored in three primary contexts: moisture-responsive actuators, voltage-responsive actuators, and CO2-responsive sensors.The unique properties of CNFs, such as high tensile strength and surface area, are leveraged to achieve effective motion in response to moisture exposure. Specifically, CNFs are utilized to create bilayer, torsional, and tensile actuators. These actuators exhibit controllable and dynamic responses, making them suitable for applications in soft robotics and wearable technology.In the realm of voltage-responsive actuators, this study investigates the impact of various electrolytes and counteranions on positively charged CNFs. It uncovers the critical role of electrolyte choice, ion migration and the plasticization effect within the CNFs matrix, resulting in volumetric expansion, which is pivotal to the actuation mechanism. These insights pave the way for CNFs applications requiring precise control of motion and flexibility in shape, such as in soft robotics.The third area of application involves the development of a capacitive CO2 sensor using CNFs-based foams functionalized with primary amines to enhance CO2 capture through chemisorption. This functionalization turns the CNFs-based foam into an efficient dielectric layer (DE) for sensor applications. The addition of 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) to the DE further expands the scope of sensor's capacitance change in response to CO2 exposure, underscoring its potential in environmental monitoring and CO2 detection.Overall, this thesis emphasizes the versatility and adaptability of CNFs as a sustainable biomaterial for developing stimuli-responsive devices. The insights gained from studying CNFs in these varied applications contribute significantly to materials science and open new avenues for research in sustainable, bio-based materials.