On Electrified Fluid Power Systems in Mobile Machinery
Sammanfattning: High power density in combination with flexible power distribution possibilities and extreme robustness are reasons why fluid power has been the preferred technology in mobile machinery, such as excavators and cranes, since the mid-20th century. In principle, the machines have been powered by a combustion engine which powers a pump, with the output from the pump being distributed to different functions via valves. However, a transformation is currently underway. Combustion engines are being replaced by electric motors, and batteries able to store energy corresponding to several hours of operation are often desired. Since batteries tend to be heavy and expensive, reducing the energy consumption is getting higher priority than ever before. There are applications where electrification means that hydraulic components are replaced by electric counterparts, but fluid power has characteristics that are highly desirable in mobile machinery. Therefore, many hydraulic actuators will remain. Conventional hydraulic systems, which are known for their inefficiency, should, however, be adapted to the new conditions brought about by electrification. The question, and the overall subject of this thesis, is: how? The research has focused on two main topics: pump-controlled systems, which are systems where each actuator has its own supply unit, and the use of variable displacement pumps in electrified systems.A large proportion of the losses in many conventional hydraulic systems is due to the simultaneous operation of functions that require different pressure levels. One way to avoid these losses is to use pump-controlled systems. How these systems should be designed is, however, far from obvious. In this thesis, different types of pump-controlled systems are compared, both statically and dynamically.Regarding variable displacement pumps, they have had a natural place in many conventional systems, but electrification may change this, since speed-control can now also be used for flow- and pressure control. However, there are still aspects relating to energy consumption and component dimensioning, among other things, that makes variable pumps relevant. These aspects are investigated here, and different types of variable pumps are reviewed.
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