The Ediacaran Diversification of Organic-walled Microbiota Ocean Life 600 Million Years Ago

Detta är en avhandling från Uppsala : Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis

Sammanfattning: The only direct evidence of past life is provided by fossils. Fossils tell us about the evolution of life on Earth and they give us clues concerning ancient environments. The Ediacaran Period (roughly 635-542 million years ago) is characterised by the appearance and diversification of various microbiota and also the diversification of metazoans. Well-preserved organic-walled microfossils referred to as acritarchs occur abundantly in Ediacaran sedimentary successions in the Officer Basin in South Australia. Acritarch assemblages from the Giles 1 and Murnaroo 1 drillcores show a wide morphological disparity and are taxonomically diverse. Assemblages change over short stratigraphic intervals which enables the recognition of different biozones. The presence of taxa common between Australia, Siberia, Baltica and China provides a means for global correlation of the Ediacaran System. Examination of the wall ultrastructure of several acritarch specimens by use of transmission electron microscopy reveals a complexity in the cell wall that is not seen in prokaryotes but is indicative in some cases of particular clades of microalgae. Wall ultrastructures range from single-layered to three- and four-layered and from homogeneous to porous. The wall ultrastructure can be used to assess biological affinities and the affinities of the studied taxa in relation to green algae, dinoflagellates and metazoans are discussed. However, before taxonomic interpretations can be made with confidence, an understanding of taphonomic degradation of microorganisms is required. With focus on illustrated specimens, one part of this thesis explains what happens to an acritarch as it undergoes various types of degradation and why an understanding of these processes is important for taxonomic identification. A meteorite impact in South Australia spread an ejecta layer over a 550 km radius area. This ejecta layer is recognised in subsurface drillcores and provides an independent stratigraphic marker horizon that supports an acritarch-based correlation.