Pharmacometric models to inform dose selection and study design : Applied in hemophilia and tuberculosis

Sammanfattning: While tuberculosis is a global pandemic, hemophilia is a rare disease which many have not heard of. Due to tuberculosis mainly being a problem in developing countries and hemophilia being a rare disease, they are not as heard of as other diseases such as cancer or metabolic diseases which are on the rise in Western societies. The quality of life for patients suffering from these diseases is notably impaired and novel drugs are warranted to further improve the treatment and management of both diseases. As market incentives are a limiting factor, it is important that the efforts that are taken to develop novel drugs are carried out in an informative manner.   One strategy to incorporate as much information as possible to inform decision making in drug development is to use pharmacometric methods. Such strategies enable simultaneous analysis of different types of data that are generated during drug development programs. In this thesis, the aim was to develop and apply pharmacometric models to facilitate dose selection and study designs in clinical programs that aim at developing new drugs for tuberculosis and hemophilia.   A standardized analysis approach of early clinical trials studying drugs against tuberculosis was presented including power calculations that showed the number of patients needed to detect drug effects. Such efforts are important as showing drug effect in early trials will aid decision making into significantly longer and costlier late trials. The approach was used to analyze a clinical trial studying if the current dose of meropenem can be lowered without negatively impacting drug effects and improving the already poor tolerability of the drug. The study found that lowering the dose may lower activity without any improvement of the tolerability properties. Furthermore, population pharmacokinetic models were developed for two novel hemostatic drugs in development for prophylactic and on-demand treatment of hemophilia. Based on the models, clinical trials in adult and pediatric subjects were supported. One of the trials were performed and it was showed with a model-based analysis that the new drug which is given subcutanously has similar efficacy as current intravenously given standard of care alternatives. Using the developed models, different strategies for designing pharmacokinetic trials in children was also presented.   In conclusion, the work performed within this thesis has contributed to the development of new drugs against tuberculosis and hemophilia.