Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy in Industrial Hygiene Applications Assessment of Emissions from and Exposures in Wood Processing Industries
Sammanfattning: This thesis evaluates the use of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) as an approach to the increasingly difficult air sampling challenges within the field of occupational and environmental hygiene. The application of FTIR is exemplified by the assessment of emissions from and exposures in the sawmill and pellet industries. Open path FTIR was applied in the sawsheds and the terpene levels were monitored for several days. Traditional adsorbent sampling was used to evaluate the FTIR measurements. The volatile emissions from wood pellets were investigated in warehouses and in domestic storage rooms. The installation of open path FTIR in the harsh sawmill environment proved useful, however, attention must be paid to vibrations, beam blockage and limited sensitivity. Adsorbent sampling showed good agreement with open path FTIR. The uncontrolled airflows in sawsheds caused significant underestimation of emission rates. By the use of FTIR and a tracer gas a more accurate estimate was obtained. The total emission from processing of Scots pine was estimated to 660 g/m3 of roundwood under bark, and can amount to 700 tons annually from a large sawmill.Hexanal (111±32 mg/m3) and CO (56±4mg/m3) were recorded in pellet warehouses. Storage of wood pellets constitutes a potential occupational and domestic health hazard. Experiments from kiln drying of lumber show that the emissions of hexanal and carbon monoxide are not limited to wood pellets but are caused by general degradation processes of wood, facilitated by drying at elevated temperature. This is the first published report where low-temperature emission of carbon monoxide from wood materials is described. The FTIR method is a significant advancement in measurement technology. The retrieved data offers unparalleled information. It offers robust, convenient and efficient monitoring of gases over extended periods. FTIR spectroscopy should be considered a standard technique within the field of occupational and environmental hygiene.
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