Organophosphates and phthalates in air and dust from indoor environments : Method development and applied measurements
Sammanfattning: Organophosphate and phthalate esters are polymer additives that are frequently found in air and dust in indoor environments. This thesis describes the development and application of air sampling and selective mass spectrometric (MS) determination of these two compound groups. It also describes the sampling and screening of these compounds in indoor air and dust from different environments and the development and evaluation of a method for the extraction and determination of these compounds in indoor dust.An air sampling method previously used for air sampling of only organophosphate esters, is here demonstrated to be applicable for simultaneous sampling of both phthalate and organophosphate esters. Selective detection using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) showed good results for simultaneous determination of organophosphate and phthalate esters in air. The high selectivity of this technique was especially advantageous when analyzing dust.Comparison of chemical profiles of the organophosphate ester between indoor environments including daycare centers, offices and private homes differed between the types of locations while the phthalate profiles were rather similar. Comparison of concentration levels of these compounds in multi-storey apartment buildings classified as either high or low risk “sick” buildings could not differentiate the two classes of buildings. Further, the studies also points out some potential sources of organophosphate and phthalate esters in these indoor environments.In general the levels of phthalate esters were consistently higher than the levels of organophosphate esters both in air and in dust. Phthalate and organophosphate esters were also determined in a dust standard reference material; seventeen of the targeted compounds were quantified out of which ten had not previously been reported for this reference material.
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