Den krattade manegen : Svensk arbetsorganisatorisk utveckling under tre decennier
Sammanfattning: Many actors in the social environment of companies continually develop normative local models of management and organization. At the same time more general models are presented in the normative literature of management and organization. The object of study are models of work organization from the late 1960s to the late 1990s in (1) normative books, and (2) change programs of social actors. The main problem concerns the relationships between general models, social actors and local models.The study aims to develop modem institutional organization theory in two previously underestimated respects: first, the role of active actors in the development of models, and secondly, the connection between models over time. Two main approaches are used to facilitate this endeavor, (1) models are understood as to be constituted by both an organizational ideology and a set of organizational techniques, and (2) a generation of social actors are analyzed in terms of professional experience, social anchorage and practical connection. Three ideologies - rationalization, democratizationand humanization - and three techniques - horizontal and vertical work specialization and external control - are analyzed over time.Three general models were identified: a structural model in the 1970s a cultural model in the 1980s, and a process model in the 1990s. These models have advocated a variety of ideologies, but the same set of techniques: low specialization and low external control. The ideologies of social actors have varied and followed certain patterns, which is labeled social moulding. The actors have, however, advocated thesame set of techniques from the general model prevalent in the 1970s. The study thus shows that social actors connect both general and local models to each other over time. This phenomenon is labeled sedimentation. In the 1990s new actors connected the set of techniques, advocated by established actors since the 1970s, to a rationalization ideology from the general model. This time the set of techniques achieved a break-through in the field. The established actors had thus prepared the scene, while the newactors managed to take advantage of it.
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