Att styra ett hållbart byggande - En definition av och en styrmodell för ett hållbart byggande
Sammanfattning: A large part of the Earth’s turnover of resources is associated with buildings and building construction. There is therefore a complex relationship to be taken into consideration when realizing construction projects, since economic and social aspects also affect individual people. In order to gain an overall perspective on this relationship during the construction process, one solution is to adapt the concept of sustainable development to the construction sector and to steer the construction process in this direction. The purpose of the report is to produce a definition of sustainable construction on the basis of the definition of sustainable development and to propose a model for steering the construction process in this direction. The content of the research is of a qualitative nature combined with quantitative elements and the work has been carried out in the form of literature studies and the formulation of a control model that has later been evaluated in case studies. Sustainable development involves three interacting factors: the ecological, the economic and the social development of society. Sustainable development is achieved when these three factors are optimized. The result is a general definition of sustainable construction for the urban areas of industrial countries on the basis of the concept of sustainable development. Sustainable construction involves protecting resources, protecting eco-systems, long term resource productivity, low operating costs, good comfort and indoor environment and the preservation of social and cultural values. This should occur with regard to national legislation, the conditions in the local market, people’s participation and a resource-efficiency goal in accordance with the Factor 10 Declaration. In addition, a model is proposed, the urban model, for controlling the construction process according to the principles for sustainable construction. The model involves formulating an environmental programme at an early stage on the basis of the developer’s own organization and the terms of the construction project in accordance with the principle for the ISO 14001 environmental management standard. The overall goals of the environmental programme are given mutual priority and then stepwise broken down into detailed verifiable goals. The verification requirements are then transferred to the environmental plan of the implementation organization. The urban model was tried in three case studies with different types of construction and stages of the construction process. The evaluation shows that utilization of the model, compared to the real outcome, would have provided the construction process with features necessary for sustainable construction. Sustainable construction is achieved if the following significant environmental aspects are optimized: ecological design, relevant rent, low operating costs, cooperation with tenants and a well-documented risk analysis for the indoor environment. One of the more important aspects when it comes to sustainable construction is controlling the construction process from an overall perspective, and how this procedure is designed depends on the nature of the individual projects. The developer’s environmental goals should accord with the goals of the desired product, which in turn should accord with the environmental goals for operation and maintenance. Coupling these factors with a sustainable construction process will ensure that the requirement for constant improvement is met at the same time as the project’s ecological, economic and social aspects are optimized.
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