"Dödshugget mot vår nationella tonkonst". Hæffnertidens koralreform i historisk, etnohymnologisk och musikteologisk belysning
Sammanfattning: This thesis analyses the Swedish chorale book in two parts edited by J.C.F. Hæffner in 1820-21 to the new hymnal by Wallin of 1819. This is done in relation to the ideas and practices of the time; earlier and up to present times this chorale style has been described as a “petrified” hymnody, with a rhythmic equalisation, slow tempo, melodic trivialization and harmonic uniformity. To understand the ideas behind this Swedish reform of congregational singing in the early 19th century attention has been paid to the aesthetics of the chorale and the theology of music of that time. Hæffner held specific ideas influenced by early German literary romanticism. Besides this international ideological perspective the actual singing and playing practice has been studied in an ethno-hymnological approach. Hæffner’s attitude to this practice has been shown to be rather positive and he did not want his edition to be compulsory introduced. Another problem investigated has been the historical coming into being of the chorale books of Hæffner. His different editions have been compared to each other but also to other available manuscripts and editions of the time. That he was entrusted the work of 1820 has now got a new answer through a previously unknown “Universal Chorale Book” intended for Germany. Still, the solid workmanship of his predecessor Frigel in the Hymn Committee was decisive for the preservation of many old and forgotten melodies and is described in considerable detail. The role of the Royal Academy of Music has likewise been studied. It strongly supported Hæffner’s printed chorale books and used the edition of 1820-21 in its education and examinations. However, the Academy came to defend the very slow chorale tempo at hand; Hæffner was of another opinion. His iso-rhythmical design was an involuntary concession to singing practice. The reception and the criticism has also been studied. In the discussions allusions were often made to the Moravian singing of chorales. Dillner’s numerical notation not only made it possible for musically uneducated people to learn the melodies but his edition also contained an elaborate theology of music, which never before has been described in spite of its wide distribution. For the organists Åhlström’s chorale book of 1832 became very popular, but the great differences between his and Hæffner’s edition were concentrated to a rather small number of melodies.
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