Dispersion Engineering Negative Refraction and Designed Surface Plasmons in Periodic Structures

Detta är en avhandling från Stockholm : KTH

Sammanfattning: The dispersion property of periodic structures is a hot research topic in the last decade. By exploiting dispersion properties, one can manipulate the propagation of electromagnetic waves, and produce effects that do not exist in conventional materials. This thesis is devoted to two important dispersion effects: negative refraction and designed surface plasmons.First, we introduce negative refraction and designed surface plasmons, including a historical perspective, main areas for applications and current trends.Several numerical methods are implemented to analyze electromagnetic effects. We apply the layer-KKR method to calculate the electromagnetic wave through a slab of photonic crystals. By implementing the refraction matrix for semi-infinite photonic crystals, the layer-KKR method is modified to compute the coupling coefficient between plane waves and Bloch modes in photonic crystals. The plane wave method is applied to obtain the band structure and the equal-frequency contours in two-dimensional regular photonic crystals. The finite-difference time-domain method is widely used in our works, but we briefly discuss two calculation recipes in this thesis: how to deal with the surface termination of a perfect conductor and how to calculate the frequency response of high-Q cavities more efficiently using the Pad\`{e} approximation method.We discuss a photonic crystal that exhibits negative refraction characterized by an effective negative index, and systematically analyze the coupling coefficients between plane waves in air and Bloch waves in the photonic crystal. We find and explain that the coupling coefficients are strong-angularly dependent. We first propose an open-cavity structure formed by a negative-refraction photonic crystal. To illuminate the physical mechanism of the subwavelength imaging, we analyze both intensity and phase spectrum of the transmission through a slab of photonic crystals with all-angle negative refraction. It is shown that the focusing properties of the photonic crystal slab are mainly due to the negative refraction effect, rather than the self-collimation effect.As to designed surface plasmons, we design a structured perfectly conducting surface to achieve the negative refraction of surface waves. By the average field method, we obtain the effective permittivity and permeability of a perfectly conducting surface drilled with one-dimensional periodic rectangle holes, and propose this structure as a designed surface plasmon waveguide. By the analogy between designed surface plasmons and surface plasmon polaritons, we show that two different resonances contribute to the enhanced transmission through a metallic film with an array of subwavelength holes, and explain that the shape effect is attributed to localized waveguide resonances.