Modelling of Bulk Metallic Glass formation in Powder Bed Fusion
Sammanfattning: This thesis discusses a model for simulation of the Powder Bed Fusion (PBF) process of metallic powder with the capability to become amorphous. The temperature field in the PBF process is predicted by a three-dimensional thermal finite element model in three dimensions using a layer-by-layer approach, meaning that the scanning strategy of the moving laser spot is consolidated into a single heat source acting on the entire layer momentarily. This temporal reduction enables simulations of large domains and many layers while it becomes less computational demanding compared to a detailed transient model that incorporates a scanning sequence. Predictions of the amorphous and crys- talline phase fractions are performed with a phase model coupled to the temperature field simulation. The phase model is based on differential scanning calorimetry measure- ments and optimized to fit continuous heating transformation into a crystalline state of an amorphous sample. The simulations are performed on the commercial available glass forming alloy AMZ4.Bulk Metallic Glass (BMG) have an amorphous structure and possesses desirable me- chanical, magnetic and corrosion properties such as high yield stress, low magnetic losses and high corrosion resistance. Glass forming alloy has the potential to become amorphous provided that the solidification rate is rapid enough to avoid crystallization. However, traditional manufacturing techniques, such as casting, limits the cooling rates and size of components due to limited heat conduction in the bulk. With Additive Manufacturing (AM) on the other hand, it is possible to produce BMG’s as the melt pool is very small and solidification can be achieved very rapid to bypass crystallization. Yet, crystals may form by devitrification (crystal formation upon heating of the amorphous phase) because of thermal cycling in previous layers. Simulation of the process will aid the understanding of glass formation during AM and the development of process parameters to control the level of devitrification.
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