Stödjande gemenskap : Utveckling och utvärdering av en intervention för livsstilsförändring bland vuxna med adhd
Sammanfattning: The entire project revolves around a lifestyle intervention that has been developed, implemented and evaluated. The intervention included adults with ADHD and comorbid mental illness. ADHD (Attention Deficiency Hyperactive Disorder) is a neuropsychiatric diagnosis/disability characterized by attention problems, impulsivity and hyperactivity and can affect education, working life, social relationships and form the basis for impaired lifestyle habits. Previous research shows shortened life expectancy in adults with ADHD, which related to deteriorating lifestyle habits. In the long run, the disability may be the basis for impaired living conditions and lifestyle habits and contribute to the individual's well-being and quality of life. In the field of health sciences, it is important to alleviate suffering, promote health and prevent ill health. Thus, the overall aim of this dissertation is to analyze living conditions among people with ADHD and mental illness, as well as to develop and evaluate a lifestyle intervention for this group.The PhD project includes four sub-studies: Study I, a qualitative interview study (n = 20) of adults with ADHD and mental illness, aimed at describing experiences of everyday suffering in this group. The analysis showed experiences of both suffering and well-being in living with ADHD. The focus of the suffering was the experience of loneliness, both regarding relationships in life, relationships in health care, but also to ADHD diagnosis and mental illness. Well-being was experienced when diagnosed with ADHD but also in relation to supportive social relationships. Study II, a quantitative descriptive and comparative study, aimed to gain more knowledge about people withADHD and their health situation. One group of people with ADHD (n = 48)was compared to the normal population without ADHD (n = 42). The results showed poorer health outcomes regarding self-perceived general health and the group with ADHD was less weekly physical active but nevertheless had no decreased aerobic fitness compared to the normal population. Study III, aquantitative descriptive study (n = 25), aimed to examine the degree of acceptance of the intervention and its impact on lifestyle habits, health and well-being, MBI and physical fitness. The tests before and after completing intervention showed small positive effects regarding weekly physical activity, quality of life and general- and mental health. Study IV, a qualitative study(n = 15), with adults with ADHD and comorbid mental illness aimed to investigate the experience of participating in a nurse-led lifestyle intervention. The analysis, based on material from interviews, showed that the participants perceived the intervention as supportive, which is related to the interpersonal relationships that arose in the intervention. Through supportive kindship with the other participants in the intervention, lifestyle habits and health experience were improved.The conclusion of the thesis is that the lifestyle intervention, based on interpersonal relationships and supported kindship, can be useful for making lifestyle changes in adults with ADHD and mental illness. Such support is important because adults with ADHD and mental illness experience a lack of and a desire for social support and has an increased risk of deteriorating health and unhealthy lifestyles. However, future adjustments to the content of the intervention must be made to improve the lifestyle intervention towards more sustainable lifestyle changes. Above all, the lifestyle intervention ought to be continuous. It is also of great importance for further research that insider perspective is used, that is, investigate the professionals' experiences regarding the intervention.
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