Policies and Practice in Neonatal Nursing Related to Nutrition
Sammanfattning: The aim of these studies was to increase knowledge about hospital feeding routines in high-risk neonates. A retrospective medical chart review procedure was used to study routines at the neonatal units of two Swedish hospitals. In Papers I and II, the sample (Uppsala n=21 and Umeå n=21) comprised of small for gestational age (SGA) infants, in Papers III (Uppsala n=64 and Umeå n=59) and IV (n=127), the samples comprised of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants.Paper I indicated large enteral/oral milk volumes rendered i.v. administration of glucose unnecessary, reduced weight loss and helped SGA infants regain birth weight earlier. More rapid postnatal growth did not remain up to 18 months with corrected age in any growth variable (Paper II).In Paper III, effects were compared whether the infants’ volume of breast milk intake in hospital was estimated by “clinical indices” or determined by test-weighing. Infants treated in hospitals where test-weighing was practised attained exclusive breastfeeding at an earlier postmenstrual age (PMA), and they were discharged at an earlier PMA. However, the two study units were similar regarding the proportion of infants attaining exclusive breastfeeding. Paper IV revealed preterm AGA infants with higher standard deviation scores (SDS) at birth had more negative changes from birth to discharge for all growth variables.Conclusions: Papers I and II indicated that early initiation of enteral/oral feeding with proactive increases in milk volume was beneficial short term. No evidence was found for a proactive nutrition regimen with initial large volumes of milk resulting in a different pattern of growth up to the corrected age of 18 months. Test-weighing before and after breastfeeding might help infants to attain exclusive breastfeeding at an earlier PMA (study III). Finally, preterm AGA infants with higher SDS at birth are at higher risk of inadequate growth during their hospital stay (study IV).
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