Trapping Tyrosine Z Exploring the Relay between Photochemistry and Water Oxidation in Photosystem II

Detta är en avhandling från Uppsala : Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis

Sammanfattning: Photosystem II is unique! It remains the only enzyme that can oxidize water using light as energy input. Water oxidation in photosystem II is catalyzed by the CaMn4 cluster. The electrons extracted from the CaMn4 cluster are transferred to P680+ via the tyrosine residue D1-Tyr161 (YZ). Favorable oxidation of YZ is coupled to a proton transfer along a hydrogen bond to the nearby D1-His190 residue, resulting in the neutral radical YZ•. By illuminating photosystem II at cryogenic temperatures, YZ• can be trapped in a stable state. Magnetic interaction between this radical and the CaMn4 cluster gives rise to a split electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal with characteristics that depend on the oxidation state (S state) of the cluster.The mechanism by which the split EPR signals are formed is different depending on the S state. In the S0 and S1 states, split signal induction proceeds via a P680+-centered mechanism, whereas in the S2 and S3 states, our results show that split induction stems from a Mn-centered mechanism. This S state-dependent pattern of split EPR signal induction can be correlated to the charge of the CaMn4 cluster in the S state in question and has prompted us to propose a general model for the induction mechanism across the different S states. At the heart of this model is the stability or otherwise of the YZ•–(D1-His190)+ pair during cryogenic illumination. The model is closely related to the sequence of electron and proton transfers from the cluster during the S cycle.Furthermore, the important hydrogen bond between YZ and D1-His190 has been investigated by following the split EPR signal formation in the different S states as a function of pH. All split EPR signals investigated decrease in intensity with a pKa of ~4-5. This pKa can be correlated to a titration event that disrupts the essential hydrogen bond, possibly by a direct protonation of D1-His190.  This has important consequences for the function of the CaMn4 cluster as this critical YZ–D1-His190 hydrogen bond steers a multitude of reactions at the cluster.