Thermodynamic Database for Zirconium Alloys

Detta är en avhandling från Stockholm : KTH

Sammanfattning: For many decades zirconium alloys have been commonly used in the nuclear power industry as fuel cladding material. Besides their good corrosion resistance and acceptable mechanical properties the main reason for using these alloys is the low neutron absorption.Zirconium alloys are exposed to a very severe environment during the nuclear fission process and there is a demand for better design of this material. To meet this requirement a thermodynamic database is useful to support material designers. In this thesis some aspects of the development of a thermodynamic database for zirconium alloys are presented. A thermodynamic database represents an important facility in applying thermodynamic equilibrium calculations for a given material providing: 1) relevant information about the thermodynamic properties of the alloys e.g. amount and composition of phases, oxygen activity, heat capacity etc, and 2) significant information for the manufacturing process e.g. heat treatment temperature.The basic information in the database is first the unary data, i.e. pure elements; those are taken from the compilation of the Scientific Group Thermodata Europe (SGTE) and then the binary and ternary systems. All phases present in those binary and ternary systems are described by means of the Gibbs energy as a function of composition and temperature. Many of those binary systems have been taken from published or unpublished works and others have been assessed in the present work. The elements included in the databse are: C, Fe, Cr, Nb, Ni, Mo, O, Si, Sn, and Zr + H, and the assessment performed under this thesis are: Cr-Sn, Mo-Zr, Sn-Zr, Fe-Nb-Zr and Nb-O-Zr. All the calculations have been made using Thermo-Calc software and the representation of the Gibbs energy obtained by applying Calphad technique with some use of ab initio calculations.