Policy and transitions processes in sector systems of innovation and production

Sammanfattning: In the last decades, innovation and innovation processes in industry have been regarded as critical to establishing sustainable economic competitiveness and development-both crucial for societal goals and visions. In the aftermath of the tirst oil crisis in the late 1970s and early 1980s, the influential work by research schalars' has inspired a comprehensive new order in economic research internationally which will be discussed in this thesis. In the frame of that a main interest has been devoted to look upan what characterizes the emergence and  development of an innovation system and the factors that contribute to, but perhaps also limit, the development? As a faundatian for the thesis, three different papers have been written. The tirst paper is a literature review with empirical examples and deals with the roats and long tails of the Swedish model - development of institutionai structures on an aggregated level through seetorai systems of innovation and productian. This paper also describes attempts to trans form and adapt the model to new circumstances at the end of the 1990s and the tirst years of the 21 st century. The second paper describe a foresight model and shows how such a model can be a valuable strategic management tool for renewing goals and cognitive awareness in a local cluster group in a traditional industry. This papet also views the consumer secter from miera and actot perspectives on the programme leve!. In the third paper three an ongoing transition processes and mutual development in three mature branches is studied. The paper presents a system perspective on organisations- and mezzoIevel. The thesis generates tive main conelusions: I) Long-tenn thinking and a nation of "la longue duree" are prerequisites for development of innovation systems. 2) The existence of a reference base and a prehistory constitutes an important platfonn for the emergence of innovation systems. 3) Strong driving forces and intentionalily are fundamental to emerging innovation systems. 4) Institutions and organisations are important instruments of change in the emergence of innovation systems; and 5) Entrepreneurship and management at s!!Uctural and micro levels are important ingredients in an innovation system's development processes. Possible implications ofsome aspects of the conclusions for the Swedish policy landscape are many. One example is the matter of longterm thinking and "la longue duree", which this thesis hopefully has made elear are not synonyms. Long-tenn thinking and temporalily within "la longue duree" are important issues behind successful innovations, change processes, and development processes. Of this. there is an impressive quantity offacts and arguments.