Modelling and Analysis of Interconnects for Deep Submicron Systems-on-Chip
Sammanfattning: The last few decades have been a very exciting period in thedevelopment of micro-electronics and brought us to the brink ofimplementing entire systems on a single chip, on a hithertounimagined scale. However an unforeseen challenge has croppedup in the form of managing wires, which have become the mainbottleneck in performance, masking the blinding speed of activedevices. A major problem is that increasingly complicatedeffects need to be modelled, but the computational complexityof any proposed model needs to be low enough to allow manyiterations in a design cycle.This thesis addresses the issue of closed form modelling ofthe response of coupled interconnect systems. Following astrict mathematical approach, second order models for thetransfer functions of coupled RC trees based on the first andsecond moments of the impulse response are developed. The2-pole-1-zero transfer function that is the best possible fromthe available information is obtained for the signal path fromeach driver to the output in multiple aggressor systems. Thisallows the complete response to be estimated accurately bysumming up the individual waveforms. The model represents theminimum complexity for a 2-pole-1-zero estimate, for this classof circuits.Also proposed are new techniques for the optimisation ofwires in on-chip buses. Rather than minimising the delay overeach individual wire, the configuration that maximises thetotal bandwidth over a number of parallel wires isinvestigated. It is shown from simulations that there is aunique optimal solution which does not necessarily translate tothe maximum possible number of wires, and in fact deviatesconsiderably from it when the resources available for repeatersare limited. Analytic guidelines dependent only on processparameters are derived for optimal sizing of wires andrepeaters.Finally regular tiled architectures with a commoncommunication backplane are being proposed as being the mostefficient way to implement systems-on-chip in the deepsubmicron regime. This thesis also considers the feasibility ofimplementing a regular packet-switched network-on-chip in atypical future deep submicron technology. All major physicalissues and challenges are discussed for two differentarchitectures and important limitations are identified.
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