Poisson Multi-Bernoulli Mixtures for Multiple Object Tracking

Sammanfattning: Multi-object tracking (MOT) refers to the process of estimating object trajectories of interest based on sequences of noisy sensor measurements obtained from multiple sources. Nowadays, MOT has found applications in numerous areas, including, e.g., air traffic control, maritime navigation, remote sensing, intelligent video surveillance, and more recently environmental perception, which is a key enabling technology in automated vehicles. This thesis studies Poisson multi-Bernoulli mixture (PMBM) conjugate priors for MOT. Finite Set Statistics provides an elegant Bayesian formulation of MOT based on random finite sets (RFSs), and a significant trend in RFSs-based MOT is the development of conjugate distributions in Bayesian probability theory, such as the PMBM distributions. Multi-object conjugate priors are of great interest as they provide families of distributions that are suitable to work with when seeking accurate approximations to the true posterior distributions. Many RFS-based MOT approaches are only concerned with multi-object filtering without attempting to estimate object trajectories. An appealing approach to building trajectories is by computing the multi-object densities on sets of trajectories. This leads to the development of many multi-object filters based on sets of trajectories, e.g., the trajectory PMBM filters. In this thesis, [Paper A] and [Paper B] consider the problem of point object tracking where an object generates at most one measurement per time scan. In [Paper A], a multi-scan implementation of trajectory PMBM filters via dual decomposition is presented. In [Paper B], a multi-trajectory particle smoother using backward simulation is presented for computing the multi-object posterior for sets of trajectories using a sequence of multi-object filtering densities and a multi-object dynamic model. [Paper C] and [Paper D] consider the problem of extended object tracking where an object may generate multiple measurements per time scan. In [Paper C], an extended object Poisson multi-Bernoulli (PMB) filter is presented, where the PMBM posterior density after the update step is approximated as a PMB. In [Paper D], a trajectory PMB filter for extended object tracking using belief propagation is presented, where the efficient PMB approximation is enabled by leveraging the PMBM conjugacy and the factor graph formulation.

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