Palaeosurfaces and palaeovalleys on North Atlantic previously glaciated passive margins : reference forms for conclusions on uplift and erosion
Sammanfattning: Palaeosurfaces and palaeovalleys are landforms under destruction in the present climate and/or tectonic regime, and thus mainly reflect processes not active today. Uplifted palaeosurfaces exist along the formerly glaciated passive continental margins around the North Atlantic. Large-scale landform development has recently become a matter of interest also for geologists and geophysicists as the result of an increasing awareness that a thorough knowledge of uplift, erosion, deposition and development of landforms along continental margins can only be accomplished by combined studies using independent data from different scientific disciplines. The present study focuses on one of these above data sets; the landform record. Two uplifted areas, southern Norway and central West Greenland, were selected for landform analysis of high resolution digital elevation models, aerial photographs, relation between landforms in basement and cover rocks, offshore seismic lines and X-ray diffraction of clay minerals in saprolites. In southern Norway, analysis of slope angles within the range of pediment slopes was combined with analysis of main valley incision. This resulted in the identification of three main planation surfaces in a stepped sequence formed along the main valleys as a consequence of tectonic uplift events, maybe in the Palaeogene, (in total >1000 m). Two phases of late uplift (~900 m), probably in the Neogene, triggered incision of deep fluvial valleys, later reshaped by glacial erosion (up to 300 m). In central West Greenland palaeosurfaces were analysed in relation to cover rock of different age. An exhumed etch surface, characterized by a typical hilly relief, occurs on Disko and south of Disko Bugt, and are by the presence of cover rocks shown to be sub-Palaeocene in origin. To the north, a post-Eocene erosion surface on Nuussuaq, cuts across basement and basalt and was probably formed close to sea level. Uplift in two phases elevated this surface up to 2000 m above present sea level and broke it in differently tilted tectonic blocks. South of Disko Bugt, a planation surface, of probably the same age as the one on Nuussuaq, cuts the tilted etch surface, and also cuts across different bedrock types. The planation surface rises towards the south and splits in two surfaces, separated in altitude up to 300 m, within two highly elevated areas. The separation into two surfaces indicate two uplift events: A first minor event of a few hundred metres in the uplift centres resulted in incision of the lower planation surface. This event was later followed by a major uplift event amounting to >1000 m. Correlation with the offshore sedimentary record suggests that both uplift events occurred in the Neogene. The erosion pattern calculated from one reconstructed palaeosurface to present topography shows large spatial variations. This is interpreted as an effect of differential bedrock resistance and local variations of glacial erosion (400–1300 m in low areas). The results presented in this thesis demonstrate the usefulness of palaeosurfaces and palaeovalleys as tools for deciphering magnitude of uplift events, establishing relative event chronologies and for calculation of erosion. Moreover integrated studies of palaeolandforms, offshore geology and thermal chronologies, are shown to be invaluable when used to solve the spatial and temporal patterns of uplift, erosion and deposition.
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