Cardiac hypertrophy transcription patterns, hypertrophicprogression and extracellular signalling
Sammanfattning: Background: The aim of this thesis was to study transcription patterns and extracellular signalling of the hypertrophic heart to better understand the mechanisms initiating, controlling and maintaining cardiac hypertrophy.Cardiac hypertrophy is a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Hypertrophy of the myocardium is a state, independent of underlying disease, where the myocardium strives to compensate for an increased workload. This remodelling of the heart includes physiological changes induced by a changed gene expression, alteration of the extracellular matrix and diverse cell-to-cell signalling.Shedding microvesicles and exosomes are membrane released vesicles derived from the plasma membrane, which can mediate messages between cells and induce various cell-related processes in target cells.Methods and materials: Two different microarray studies on different materials were performed. In the first study, cardiac myectomies from 8 patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) and 5 controls without cardiac disease were used. In the second study, myocardial tissue from 6 aorta ligated and 6 sham operated (controls) rats at three different time points (1, 6 and 42 days post-surgically) were analysed. To reveal differences in gene expression the materials were analyzed with Illumina whole genome microarray and multivariate data analysis (PCA and OPLS-DA).Cultured cardiomyocytes (HL-1) were incubated with and without growth factors (TGF-?2 or PDGF BB). Microvesicles and exosomes were collected and isolated after differential centrifugations and ultracentrifugations of the cell culture medium. The microvesicles and exosomes were characterized with dynamic light scattering (DLS), flow cytometry, western blot, electron microscopy and Illumina whole genome microarray.Results: The two different microarray studies revealed differentially expressed gene transcripts and groups of transcripts. When comparing HOCM patients to controls significant down-regulation of the MYH6 gene transcript and two immediate early genes (IEGs, EGR1 and FOS), as well as significant up-regulation of the ACE2, JAK2 and HDAC5 gene transcripts were found. In the rat model, 5 gene groups showed interesting clustering after multivariate data analysis (OPLS-DA) associated with the hypertrophic development: “Atherosclerosis”, “ECM and adhesion molecules”, “Fatty acid metabolism”, “Glucose metabolism” and “Mitochondria”.The shedding microvesicles were rounded vesicles, 40-300 nm in size and surrounded by a bilayered membrane. Chromosomal DNA sequences were identified in the microvesicles. The microvesicles could be taken up by fibroblasts resulting in an altered gene expression in the fibroblasts. The exosomes from cultured cardiomyocytes (incubated with TGF-?2 or PDGF BB) had an average diameter of 50-80 nm, similar to the unstimulated control exosomes. A large, for all cardiomyocyte derived exosomes, common pool of mRNA seems stable and a smaller pool varied in mRNA content according to treatment of the cardiomyocyte. Of the common mRNA about 14% were ribosomal, 14% were of unknown locus and 5% connected to the function of the mitochondria.Conclusions: The microarray studies showed that transcriptional regulation at a stable stage of the hypertrophic development is a balance of pro and anti hypertrophic mechanisms and that diverse gene groups are differently regulated at different time points in the hypertrophic progression.OPLS-DA is a very useful and powerful tool when analyzing gene expression data, especially in finding clusters of gene groups not seen with traditional statistics.The extracellular vesicle studies suggests that microvesicles and exosomes released from cardiomyocytes contain DNA and can be involved in events in target cells by facilitating an array of processes including gene expression changes. Different treatment of the cardiomyocyte influence the content of the exosome produced, indicating that the signal function of the exosome might vary according to the state of the cardiomyocyte.
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