Enzymatic Synthesis of Functional Polyesters

Detta är en avhandling från Stockholm : KTH

Sammanfattning: Enzymes are successfully employed in the synthesis of different types of polymers. Candida antarctica lipase B is a highly efficient catalyst for the synthesis of polyesters by ring opening polymerization. ?-Pentadecalactone is an interesting lactone due to the unique proprieties of its polymer (poly-pentadecalactone). These polymers have not been applied in any industrial application due to the difficulties to reach them by chemical polymerization. Enzymatically, poly-pentadecalactone macromonomers can be obtained to high conversion.In this investigation we synthesized difunctionalized poly-pentadecalactone with different functional groups. Taking advantage of the selectivity of Candida antarctica lipase B, we introduced different functional end groups. ?,?-Difunctionalized poly-pentadecalactone macromonomers with two thiol ends, two (meth)acrylate ends or with one thiol and one acrylate end were obtained with a high degree of functional ends. We have improved the difunctionalization procedure to a single-step route for the synthesis of ?,?-functionalized poly-pentadecalactones. This procedure has a great potential for industrial applications due to the simplicity of the process and the clean products afforded. Macromonomers with functionalized ends can be used to obtain new polymer architectures with novel proprieties.We also show how the use of enzymes could have some limitations when using an initiator with a cleavable ester bond. 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) was used as initiator for the ring opening polymerization (eROP) of ?-caprolactone and ?-pentadecalactone aiming for methacrylate functional polyester. However, the lipase catalyzed not only the ring opening polymerization but also the cleavage of the HEMA moiety resulting in a mixture of polymer products with various end groups. A kinetics study of the eROP and the transesterification processes when using HEMA showed that the transesterification processes occurs at moderate frequency at low monomer concentration, it becomes dominant at longer reaction times. We showed that fully difunctionalized polymers can be obtained when using HEMA as initiator for the eROP of lactones by adding a proper end capper.