Structural and Biochemical Studies of Antibiotic Resistance and Ribosomal Frameshifting
Sammanfattning: Protein synthesis, translation, performed by the ribosome, is a fundamental process of life and one of the main targets of antibacterial drugs. This thesis provides structural and biochemical understanding of three aspects of bacterial translation.Elongation factor G (EF-G) is the target for the antibiotic fusidic acid (FA). FA binds to EF-G only on the ribosome after GTP hydrolysis and prevents EF-G dissociation from the ribosome. Point mutations in EF-G can lead to FA resistance but are often accompanied by a fitness cost in terms of slower growth of the bacteria. Secondary mutations can compensate for this fitness cost while resistance is maintained. Here we present the crystal structure of the clinical FA drug target, Staphylococcus aureus EF-G, together with the mapping and analysis of all known FA-resistance mutations in EF-G. We also present crystal structures of the FA-resistant mutant F88L, the FA-hypersensitive mutant M16I and the FA-resistant but fitness-compensated double mutant F88L/M16I. Analysis of mutant structures together with biochemical data allowed us to propose that fitness loss and compensation are caused by effects on the conformational dynamics of EF-G on the ribosome.Aminoglycosides are another group of antibiotics that target the decoding region of the 30S ribosomal subunit. Resistance to aminoglycosides can be acquired by inactivation of the drugs via enzymatic modification. Here, we present the first crystal structure an aminoglycoside 3’’ adenyltransferase, AadA from Salmonella enterica. AadA displays two domains and unlike related structures most likely functions as a monomer.Frameshifts are deviations the standard three-base reading frame of translation. -1 frameshifting can be caused by normal tRNASer3 at GCA alanine codons and tRNAThr3 at CCA/CCG proline codons. This process has been proposed to involve doublet decoding using non-standard codon-anticodon interactions. In our study, we showed by equilibrium binding that these tRNAs bind with low micromolar Kd to the frameshift codons. Our results support the doublet-decoding model and show that non-standard anticodon loop structures need to be adopted for the frameshifts to happen.These findings provide new insights in antibiotic resistance and reading-frame maintenance and will contribute to a better understanding of the translation elongation process.
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