Experimental radioimmunotherapy and effector mechanisms
Sammanfattning: Radioimmunotherapy is becoming important as a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of tumour diseases. Lately monoclonal antibodies tagged with radionuclides have demonstrated encouraging results in treatment of hematological malignancies. The progress in treatment of solid tumours using radioimmunotherapy, however, has been slow. New strategies to improve the treatment response need to be evaluated. Such new strategies include the combination of radioimmunotherapy with other treatment modalities but also elucidation and exploration of the death effector mechanisms involved in tumour eradication.As the combination of radioimmunotherapy and radiotherapy provides several potential synergistic effects, we started out by optimising a treatment schedule to detect benefits combining these treatment modalities. An anti-cytokeratin antibody labelled with 125I administered before, after, or simultaneously with radiotherapy, indicated that the highest dose to the tumour was delivered when radiotherapy was given prior to the antibody administration. The optimised treatment schedule was then applied therapeutically in an experimental study on HeLa Hep2 tumour bearing nude mice given radiotherapy prior to administration of 131I-labelled monoclonal antibodies. Combining these treatment regimes enhanced the effect of either of the treatment modalities given alone, and a significant reduction in tumour volumes could be demonstrated. This treatment caused a dramatic change in tumour morphology, with increased amounts of connective tissue, giant cells and cysts. Furthermore cellular alterations like heterogeneity of nuclear and cytoplasmic size and shape were observed, and at least a fraction of the tumour cells presented some characteristics of apoptosis.The induced sequential events in Hela Hep2 cells exposed to 2.5-10 Gy of ionizing radiation were studied further, with special emphasis on cell cycle arrest, mitotic aberrations and finally cell death. Following radiation HeLa Hep2 cells initiated a transient G2/M arrest trying to repair cellular damage. This arrest was followed by a sequence of disturbed mitoses with anaphase bridges, lagging chromosomal material, hyperamplification of centrosomes and multipolar mitotic spindles. These mitotic disturbances produced multinuclear polyploid cells and cells with multiple micronuclei, cells that were destined to die via mitotic catastrophes and delayed apoptosis.Induction of apoptosis in HeLa Hep2 cells following radiation doses and dose-rates equivalent to those delivered at radioimmunotherapy was concurrently studied in vitro. Significant induction of apoptosis was obtained and found to be induced relatively slowly, peaking 72-168 hours post irradiation. Caspases from the intrinsic pathway as well as the extrinsic pathway were found to be activated in response to ionizing radiation. Furthermore caspase-2, which has recently been acknowledged for its role as an initiator caspase was found to be activated following radiation and seems to play an important role in this delayed apoptosis.
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