Self-management of diabetes in adolescents using insulin pumps
Sammanfattning: Insulin pump treatment (CSII) is considered the most physiological way to imitate the healthy body’s insulin profile in adolescents with diabetes. However, despite the use of CSII, achieving the recommended disease control is difficult for adolescents.The aim of this thesis was to explore aspects of self-management of diabetes in adolescents using insulin pumps in order to describe conditions contributing to the recommended disease control.Three methods of bolusing (normal, dual-wave and square-wave) in connection with pasta meals were tested in a crossover study among 15 adolescents with diabetes to assess whether one method was superior in managing glucose levels. A cross-sectional study among 90 adolescents being treated with CSII was conducted to investigate the management of CSII, including the administration of bolus doses. Two qualitative interview studies, based on the grounded theory method, were performed to gain insight into the processes involved in taking bolus doses and to investigate reasons for missed bolus doses and strategies for avoiding missing them. Twelve adolescents, four parents and one diabetes specialist nurse were interviewed.No method of bolusing was found to be superior in managing the glucose levels after these meals. The post-prandial glucose peaks were <10 mmol/L, in 48% of the cases, regardless of bolus methods. This indicates that adolescents can be encouraged to individually test which bolus method gives them the most normal post-prandial glucose levels.The cross-sectional study showed that adolescents were satisfied with CSII, but that 38% had missed more than 15% of the bolus doses the day under study. The frequency of bolus doses correlated with the disease control.Findings from the interview study revealed the need to clarify the responsibility for diabetes self-management in continuous negotiation between adolescents and parents to avoid insulin omission. The main reason for missed boluses was lost focus, and the strategies for remembering them were agreements involving reminders.The thesis describes that individual dose testing, clarification of responsibility and agreements involving reminders are conditions contributing to the recommended disease control. The thesis also describes that lost focus and a lack of responsibility can lead to insulin omission and be a hindrance to achieving disease control.
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