Physiology of Escherichia coli in batch and fed-batch cultures with special emphasis on amino acid and glucose metabolism

Detta är en avhandling från Stockholm : Bioteknologi

Sammanfattning: The objective of this work is to better understand themetabolism and physiology ofEscherichiacoli(W3110) in defined medium cultures with thelong-term goal of improving cell yield and recombinant proteinproductivity.The order of amino acid utilization inE. colibatch cultures was investigated in a medium with16 amino acids and glucose. Ser, Pro, Asp, Gly, Thr, Glu andAla were rapidly consumed and depleted at the end of theexponential phase, while His, Arg, Val, Met, Ile, Leu, Phe, Lysand Tyr were consumed slowly during the following linear growthphase. The uptake order correlated to the maximum specificconsumption rate. Of the rapidly consumed amino acids onlyglyine and threonine improved growth when added individually.Serine was the first amino acid to be consumed, but inhibitedglucose uptake initially, which presumably is related to thefunction of PTS. Valine inhibited cell growth could be releasedby isoleucine. The critical medium concentration of valinetoxicity was 1.5 - 3 µmol L-1. Valine uptake was associated with exchange ofisoleucine out of the cells.Glycine significantly increased the cell yield,Yx/s,and growth rate ofE. coliin batch cultures in a glucose-mineral medium.Maximum effect occurred at pH 6.8, at 6 - 12 mmol L-1glycine, and below 1.15 g dw L-1.13C NMR technique was employed to identify [1-13C], [2-13C]and [1,2-13C]acetate in the cultures supplied with [2-13C]glycine. The NMR data revealed that littledegradation of added glycine occurred, and that serine/glycinebiosynthesis was repressed below 1.15 g dw L-1, implicating that glycine was a source ofglycine, serine, one-carbon units, and threonine. Above 1.15 gdw L-1, 53% of the consumed glycine carbon was excretedas acetate. Degradation of glycine was associated with anincreased uptake rate, cleavage by GCV, and degradation of bothglycine- and glucose-derived serine to pyruvate. This switch inmetabolism appears to be regulated by quorum sensing.A cell density-dependent metabolic switch occurred also inthe central metabolism. A 2 - 3 fold decrease in mostglycolytic and TCA cycle metabolites, but an increase inacetyl-CoA, occurred after the switch. The acetate productionrate decreased throughout the culture with a temporary increaseat the switch point, but the intracellular acetate poolremained relatively constant.Two mixtures of amino acids were fed together with glucosein fed-batch cultures ofE. coliW3110 pRIT44T2, expressing the recombinantprotein ZZT2. One mixture contained 20 amino acids and theother 5 so-called 'protein amino acids': Ala, Arg, Met, His andPhe. Although the amino aids increased the cell yield anddecreased the proteolysis rate in both cases, ZZT2 productionwas decreased. A decrease of ZZT2 synthesis rate is consideredto be the reason. Further studies of the 5 amino acidsindicated that a few amino acids disturb metabolism.Carbon mass balances were calculated in glucose limitedfed-batch cultures ofE. coli. In the end, the carbon recovery was ~90% basedon biomass, CO2and acetate, but ~100% if the all carbon in themedium was included. Outer membrane (OM) constituents,lipopolysaccharide, phospholipids, and carbohydratescontributed to 63% of the extracellular carbon. Little celllysis occurred and the unidentified (~30%) carbon was assumedto constitute complex carbohydrates. A novel cultivationtechnique Temperature-Limited Fed-Batch (TLFB) is developed toprevent OM shedding in high-cell density cultures.Keywords: Escherichia coli, amino acids, glycine, quorumsensing, metabolic switch, metabolite pools, carbon balance,outer membrane, lipopolysaccharide, batch culture, fed-batchculture