The Multifunctional HnRNP A1 Protein in the Regulation of the Cyp2a5 Gene Connecting Transcriptional and Posttranscriptional Processes
Sammanfattning: The mouse xenobiotic-inducible Cyp2a5 gene is both transcriptionally and posttranscriptionally regulated. One of the most potent Cyp2a5 inducers, the hepatotoxin pyrazole, increases the CYP2A5 mRNA half-life. The induction is accomplished through the interaction of a pyrazole-inducible protein with a 71 nt long, putative hairpin-loop region in the 3' UTR of the CYP2A5 mRNA.The aims of this thesis have been to identify the pyrazole-inducible protein, to investigate its role in the Cyp2a5 expression and the significance of the 71 nt hairpin-loop region for the Cyp2a5 expression, and to examine a possible coupling between transcriptional and posttranscriptional processes in Cyp2a5 expression.The pyrazole-inducible protein was identified as the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A1. Studies performed in mouse primary hepatocytes overexpressing hnRNP A1, and in mouse erythroleukemia derived cells lacking hnRNP A1, revealed that the 71 nt region in the 3' UTR of the CYP2A5 mRNA is essential for Cyp2a5 expression.The hnRNP A1 is a multifunctional nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein, with the ability to bind both RNA and DNA. These properties make it an interesting candidate mediating a coupling between nuclear and cytoplasmic gene regulatory events, which was investigated for the Cyp2a5. In conditions of cellular stress hnRNP A1 translocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. The accumulation of cytoplasmic hnRNP A1 after RNA polymerase II transcription inhibition, resulted in an increased binding of hnRNP A1 to the CYP2A5 mRNA, parallel with a stabilization of the CYP2A5 mRNA.Treating primary mouse hepatocytes with phenobarbital (PB), a Cyp2a5 transcriptional inducer, resulted in a mainly nuclear localization of the hnRNP A1. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays with nuclear extracts from control or PB-treated mice, revealed that hnRNP A1 interacts with two regions in the Cyp2a5 proximal promoter, and that the interaction to one of the regions was stimulated by PB treatment.In conclusion, the change in hnRNP A1 subcellular localization after transcriptional inhibition or activation, together with the effects on the interaction of hnRNP A1 with the CYP2A5 mRNA and Cyp2a5 promoter, suggest that hnRNP A1 could couple the nuclear and cytoplasmic events of the Cyp2a5 expression.The presented studies are the first showing involvement of an hnRNP protein in the regulation of a Cyp gene. Moreover, it is the first time an interconnected transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation has been suggested for a member of the Cyp gene family.
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