Humidification in Evaporative Power Cycles
Sammanfattning: Evaporative gas turbine cycles (EvGT) show an exceptionalexhaust heat recovery potential, which makes them a strongcompetitor to other advanced gas turbine cycles, especiallyfrom small to intermediate sizes. Evaporative gas turbines aredistinguished by humidifying the working fluid beforecombustion at temperatures below the boiling point of water;and the heat required for evaporation of water is partly takenout of the exhaust gas. Thus, humidification is a key operationin these cycles. This thesis investigates, both theoreticallyand experimentally, two alternative approaches tohumidification: the packed-bed humidification tower and thetubular humidifier. Both these equipments involvecountercurrent contact between water and the working fluid.Humidifier design criteria are developed and criticalparameters such as flooding, wetting rate and entrainment arediscussed. The experimental parts were carried out on thepacked-bed tower in the EvGT pilot plant, and on a tubularhumidifier test rig especially erected for this purpose. Thetheoretical models were confirmed by the experiments.The height of a transfer unit, necessary for designingpacked beds, was calculated for the packing employed in theEvGT pilot plant. It was found that the data provided by themanufacturer may be used with minor corrections.The tubular test rig operated satisfactorily delivering hothumid air. The theoretical models coincided well with theexperimental results, verifying the design criteria developedhere. The heat transfer calculations indicated that mostresistance to heat transfer is on the exhaust gas side. Thus, asurface extended tube (Sunrod) was used in the test rig. Itcould be concluded that the tubular humidifier is a strongalternative to the packed-bedtower, especially in smallhigh-pressure gas turbines.Furthermore, the importance of the non-ideality of theair-water vapor mixture in modeling evaporative cycles wasfirst highlighted in this work. Through applying realthermodynamic properties of air-water vapor mixtures in cyclecalculations, it was found that the compressed air contains ahigher amount of moisture than indicated by the ideal gasmixture model. This affects the design of the heat recoverysystem and cannot be neglected.Key words:evaporative gas turbine, indirect-fired gasturbine, humidification, packed bed, tubular humidifier,evaporator, saturator.
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