Interfibre Joint Strength under Mixed Modes of Loading

Detta är en avhandling från Stockholm : KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Engineering Sciences

Sammanfattning: The load carrying capacity of interbre joints are one of the key entities for build-up of strength inpaper materials. In order to gain insight in how to tailor the macroscopic properties of such materialsby chemical and/or mechanical treatments at a microscopic level, direct measurement of individualbre{bre crosses are typically performed. However, the state of loading in the interbre joint, intesting of individual bre{bre crosses, is in general very complex and an increased understandingfor how to evaluate the mechanical properties of interbre joints is desirable. In Paper A, amethod for manufacturing and measuring the strength of isolated interbre joints is presented. Themethod is applied to investigate the strength of bre{bre crosses at two dierent modes of loading.Also, an investigation on the manufacturing conditions is presented. The strength distribution ofindividually prepared bre{bre crosses is characterized and it was found that the median strengthin a peeling type of loading was about 20% compared to samples tested in the conventional shearingtype of loading. In Paper B, a procedure for evaluating interbre joint strength measurementsin terms of resultant forces and moments in the interbre joint region is presented. The methodis applied to investigate the state of loading in bre{bre crosses tested in peeling and shearing,respectively. It is shown that for a typical interbre joint strength test, the load components otherthan shear, cannot in general be neglected and is strongly dependent on the structural geometry ofthe bre{bre crosses. In Paper C, four distinctly dierent load cases; peeling, shearing, tearingand a biaxial type of loading was tested mechanically and evaluated numerically in order to gainmore information on how interbre joints behave in dierent modes of loading. In Paper D, thein uence of a chemical additive on the interbre joint strength is investigated on the microscopic(joint) scale and correlated to the eect previously observed on the macroscopic (sheet) scale. Xraymicrotomography and image analysis was used to understand structural changes in the brousnetwork in terms of the number of interbre joints as well as the average interbre joint contact area.The results showed that the median interbre joint strength increased by 18% upon adsorption, andthat the polyelectrolyte increased the number of contacts between the bres as well as an increasedarea of contact. In Paper E, the damage behaviour of individual interbre joints is analyzed. Froman extensive number of mechanical tests, the typical damage behaviour is identied and a failurecriterion is used to study the in uence of failure properties to give indications on how to tailor thematerial to optimize the joint strength.