Sex Differences in Cardiac and Cerebral Damage after Hypovolemic Cardiac Arrest
Sammanfattning: Resuscitation from haemorrhagic shock and the subsequent circulatory arrest remains a major clinical challenge in the care of trauma patients. Numerous experimental studies in sexually mature animals have shown a gender dimorphism in response to trauma and haemorrhagic shock. The first study was designed to evaluate sex differences in outcome after resuscitation from hypovolemic circulatory arrest. We intended to examine innate sex differences, and chose to study sexually immature animals. The study showed that cerebral cortical blood flow was greater, blood-brain-barrier was better preserved and neuronal injury was smaller in female as compared to male piglets. The second study demonstrated that female sex was associated with enhanced haemodynamic response, cardioprotection, and better survival. This cardioprotective effect was observed despite comparable estradiol and testosterone levels in male and female animals, indicating an innate gender-related cardioprotection. In both studies (I and II) female sex was associated with a smaller increase in the cerebral expression of inducible and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and nNOS). Thus in the study III we tested the hypothesis that exogenously administered 17?-estradiol (E2) could improve neurological outcome by NOS modulation. The results showed that compared with the control group, animals in the E2 group exhibited a significantly smaller increase in nNOS and iNOS expression, a smaller blood-brain-barrier disruption and a mitigated neuronal injury. There was also a significant correlation between nNOS and iNOS levels and neuronal injury. A hypothesis if female-specific cardioprotection may be attributed to a smaller NOS activity was tested in study IV. The animals received methylene blue (MB) during CPR, but were otherwise treated according to the same protocol as studies I-II. The female-specific cardioprotection could be attributed to a smaller NOS activity, but NOS inhibition with MB did not improve survival or myocardial injury, although it abated the difference between the sexes.
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