Device-to-Device Communications for Future Cellular Networks Challenges, Trade-Offs, and Coexistence
Sammanfattning: The steep growth in mobile data traffic has gained a lot of attention in recent years. With current infrastructure deployments and radio resources, operators will not be able to cope with the upcoming demands. Consequently, discussions of the next generation of mobile networks, referred to as the fifth generation (5G), have started in both academia and industry. In addition to more capacity, stringent requirements for improving energy efficiency, decreasing delays, and increasing reliability have been envisioned in 5G. Many solutions have been put forward, one of them being device-to-device (D2D) communications where users in close proximity can transmit directly to one another bypassing the base station (BS).In this thesis, we identify trade-offs and challenges of integrating D2D communications into cellular networks and propose potential solutions. To maximize gains from such integration, resource allocation and interference management are key factors. We start by introducing cooperation between D2D and cellular users in order to minimize any interference between the two user types and identifying the scenarios where this cooperation can be beneficial. It is shown that an increase in the number of cellular users within the coverage area and in the size of the cell is associated with a higher probability of cooperation. With this cooperation, we can potentially increase the number of connected devices, reduce the delay, increase the cell sum rate, and offload an overloaded cell.Next, we consider D2D communications underlaying the uplink of cellular networks. In such a scenario, any potential gain from resource sharing (time, frequency, or space) is determined by how the interference is managed. The quality and performance of the interference management techniques depend on the availability of the channel state information (CSI) and the location of nodes as well as the frequency of updates regarding such information. The more information is required, the more signaling is needed, which results in higher power consumption by the users. We investigate the trade-off between the availability of full CSI, which necessitates instantaneous information, and that of limited CSI, which requires infrequent updates. Our results show that with limited CSI, a good performance (in terms of the sum rate of both user types) can be achieved if a small performance loss is tolerated by cellular users. In addition, we propose a novel approach for interference management which only requires the information on the number of D2D users without any knowledge about their CSI. This blind approach can achieve a small outage probability with very low computational complexity when the number of scheduled D2D users is small.We then study the problem of mode selection, i.e., if a user should transmit in the D2D mode or in the conventional cellular mode. We identify the decision criteria for both overlay and underlay scenarios with two different objectives. We find out that the D2D communication is beneficial in macro cells or at cell boundaries. The area in which D2D mode is optimal varies with the objective of the network, transmit power, required quality-of-service, and the number of BS antennas.In the second part of this thesis, we study the effects of integration and coexistence of underlay D2D communications with another promising technology proposed for 5G, namely massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO). Potential benefits of both technologies are known individually, but the possibility of and performance gains from their coexistence are not adequately addressed. We evaluate the performance of this hybrid network in terms of energy efficiency and the average sum rate. Comprehensive analysis reveals that the performance highly depends on the D2D user density. We conclude that underlay D2D communications can only coexist with massive MIMO systems in the regime of low D2D user density. By introducing a high number of D2D users, gains from the massive MIMO technology degrade rapidly, and therefore in this case, the D2D communications should use the overlay approach rather than the underlay, or the network should only allow a subset of D2D transmissions to be active at a time.
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