Optics and Instrumentation for Compact Soft X-Ray Microscopy

Författare: Göran Johansson; Kth; []

Nyckelord: x-ray; multilayer; optics; microscopy;

Sammanfattning: This thesis describes thedevelopment of soft x-ray reflective optics and instrumentationfor compact soft x-ray microscopy. This microscope operates atthe wavelength 3.374 nm in the water-window (2.3 - 4.4 nm),where natural contrast between carbon and oxygen allows imagingof unstained biological material in their natural aqueousenvironment. A new design, with improvements in mechanical andthermal stability, results in an image quality approaching thatof synchrotron-based instruments.Furthermore, the design andimplementation of a compact soft x-ray reflectometer based on alaser-plasma source is described. The reflectometer allowsrapid and accurate characterization of normal-incidencemultilayer coatings used at water-window wavelengths. Thisinstrument, which measures absolute reflectivity and multilayerperiod, is now used in the fabrication process, aiming toimprove the soft x-ray normal-incidence multilayer condensersystem of the compact soft x-ray microscope.

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