Integrin αVβ3-Directed Contraction by Connective Tissue Cells : Role in Control of Interstitial Fluid Pressure and Modulation by Bacterial Proteins

Sammanfattning: This thesis aimed at studying mechanisms involved in control of tissue fluid homeostasis during inflammation.The interstitial fluid pressure (PIF) is of importance for control of tissue fluid balance. A lowering of PIF in vivo will result in a transport of fluid from the circulation into the tissue, leading to edema. Loose connective tissues that surround blood vessels have an intrinsic ability to take up fluid and swell. The connective tissue cells exert a tension on the fibrous network of the tissues, thereby preventing the tissues from swelling. Under normal homeostasis, the interactions between the cells and the fibrous network are mediated by β1 integrins. Connective tissue cells are in this way actively controlling PIF.Here we show a previously unrecognized function for the integrin αVβ3, namely in the control of PIF. During inflammation the β1 integrin function is disturbed and the connective tissue cells release their tension on the fibrous network resulting in a lowering of PIF. Such a lowering can be restored by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) -BB. We demonstrated that PDGF-BB restored PIF through a mechanism that was dependent on integrin αVβ3. This was shown by the inability of PDGF-BB to restore a lowered PIF in the presence of anti-integrin β3 IgG or a peptide inhibitor of integrin αVβ3. PDGF-BB was in addition unable to normalize a lowered PIF in β3 null mice. Furthermore, we demonstrated that extracellular proteins from Streptococcus equi modulated αVβ3-mediated collagen gel contraction. Because of the established concordance between collagen gel contraction in vitro and control of PIF in vivo, a potential role for these proteins in control of tissue fluid homeostasis during inflammation could be assumed. Sepsis and septic shock are severe, and sometimes lethal, conditions. Knowledge of how bacterial components influence PIF and the mechanisms for tissue fluid control during inflammatory reactions is likely to be of clinical importance in treating sepsis and septic shock.