Transaktionsprocess och transaktionskostnader för småfastigheter : en internationell jämförelse

Detta är en avhandling från Stockholm : KTH

Sammanfattning: The study deals with real estate transaction for one-family houses and aims to compare and analyse the transaction processes and costs in six countries: Sweden, Finland, Norway, Poland, England and USA. The study identifies the main features of the normal transaction in each country and tries to measure the costs of the process. A basic description of the role of the real estate agent/broker is presented, referring among others to legal role of the agent/broker and the requirements for being allowed to work as real estate agent/broker.The conclusions of the study are that transaction processes differ considerably between the countries and that transaction costs vary. Only in Sweden and Norway, can and may a real estate broker carry out the whole transaction while in Poland, England and USA either a notary, an attorney or an otherwise authorized person is also required in the process. In Finland a purchase witness is required to confirm the purchase. It is difficult to arrange the countries in a clear way according to their rules, because even if a group of countries resemble each other in some aspects, they differ in others.There is no clear connection between how large part a real estate broker plays in the process and the broker’s education level.The total transaction costs excluding taxes vary from approx. 3-3.5 % of selling price in Norway and Sweden and up to approx. 8-8.5 % of selling price in USA and Poland. The transaction cost is, for example, lower if the recording system is well arranged, if a real estate broker has a bigger part in the process and the conveyancer, the professional who assists in the legal transfer of property, is impartial. The cost can also, but not always, be lower if only one real estate broker works with one commission and if the real estate broker is impartial, i.e. is enjoined to assist both parts in the process.In the countries where a real estate broker has a higher level of education and plays bigger part in the process, the estate agents remuneration is not higher compared to other studied countries

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