# Essays in Quantitative Finance

Sammanfattning: This thesis contributes to the quantitative finance literature and consists of four research papers.Paper 1. This paper constructs a hybrid commodity interest rate market model with a stochastic local volatility function that allows the model to simultaneously fit the implied volatility of commodity and interest rate options. Because liquid market prices are only available for options on commodity futures (not forwards), a convexity correction formula is derived to account for the difference between forward and futures prices. A procedure for efficiently calibrating the model to interest rate and commodity volatility smiles is constructed. Finally, the model is fitted to an exogenously given cross-correlation structure between forward interest rates and commodity prices. When calibrating to options on forwards (rather than futures), the fitting of cross-correlation preserves the (separate) calibration in the two markets (interest rate and commodity options), whereas in the case of futures, a (rapidly converging) iterative fitting procedure is presented. The cross-correlation fitting is reduced to finding an optimal rotation of volatility vectors, which is shown to be an appropriately modified version of the “orthonormal Procrustes” problem. The calibration approach is demonstrated on market data for oil futures.Paper 2. This paper describes an efficient American Monte Carlo approach for pricing Bermudan swaptions in the LIBOR market model using the Stochastic Grid Bundling Method (SGBM) which is a regression-based Monte Carlo method in which the continuation value is projected onto a space in which the distribution is known. We demonstrate an algorithm to obtain accurate and tight lower–upper bound values without the need for the nested Monte Carlo simulations that are generally required for regression-based methods.Paper 3. The credit valuation adjustment (CVA) for over-the-counter derivatives are computed using the portfolio’s exposure over its lifetime. Usually, future exposure is approximated by Monte Carlo simulations. For derivatives that lack an analytical approximation for their mark-to-market (MtM) value, such as Bermudan swaptions, the standard practice is to use the regression functions from the least squares Monte Carlo method to approximate their simulated MtMs. However, such approximations have significant bias and noise, resulting in an inaccurate CVA charge. This paper extend the SGBM to efficiently compute expected exposure, potential future exposure, and CVA for Bermudan swaptions. A novel contribution of the paper is that it demonstrates how different measures, such as spot and terminal measures, can simultaneously be employed in the SGBM framework to significantly reduce the variance and bias.Paper 4. This paper presents an algorithm for simulation of options on Lévy driven assets. The simulation is performed on the inverse transition matrix of a discretised partial differential equation. We demonstrate how one can obtain accurate option prices and deltas on the variance gamma (VG) and CGMY model through finite element-based Monte Carlo simulations.

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