Tensile fracture of ice : test methods and fracture mechanics analysis
Sammanfattning: This thesis is concerned with several aspects of fracture of both brackish (low salinity) sea ice and freshwater ice. The tests and analyses are confined to tensile, or in fracture mechanics language, Mode I, fracture. A large part of this thesis is dedicated to demonstrate that Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) can be applicable on ice by laboratory and in-situ tests of defined specimens. All interpretations are made using the dicipline of LEFM.First, the development of a field test equipment called FIFT ( a Field Instrument for Fracture toughness Tests on ice) is described. The FIFT is used in both field and laboratory fracture toughness tests on brackish sea ice from the Gulf of Bothnia to describe porosity effects on the apparent fracture toughness, KQ, and estimate crack velocities. An appropriate speciment size, in terms of notch sensitivity, is then provided valid for grain sizes ranging from 1.6 to nearly 100 mm.An augmented use of the FIFT is then described where fracture toughness tests are performed on S1 type freshwater ice to investigate if similarities exist in the local KI fields for three different fracture geometries. The results indicate that, under comparable conditions, KQ is similar for all of the geometries. However, the type of specimen, has a marked influence on the character of the fracture surface.Then, the influence of structural anisotropy on the fracture toughness of S1 ice is investigated by fabricating and testing three different fracture geometries from a single ice core. This approach is suitable for both field and, as in this work, laboratory studies. There is a wide scatter in the KQ values. Possible explanations to the results are discussed in terms of the microstructural influences and specimen size effects.Finally, crack growth resistance measurements on large grained S1 ice is conducted. A new fracture geometry is used which is found to be extremely favorable of promoting stable, stick-slip, crack growth over a large portion of the uncracked ligament. Now a complete characterization of the fracture resistance curve is therefore possible, A negative fracture resistance KR-curve is evaluated for the S1 ice at -16°C.
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