Holocene Environmental Change of Southern Öland, Sweden

Detta är en avhandling från Uppsala : Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis

Sammanfattning: This thesis describes Holocene environmental change in Ottenby, southern Öland,Sweden. Analyses of pollen sequences collected distally in the Littorina ridge and in fentroughs between lower laying beach ridges show the vegetation history during twoperiods, the first around 8000 BP and the second from 0/500 AD to about present time.Ages were obtained by radiocarbon datings.The sediments reveal the approaching Littorina transgression. A pond was formedbehind anearlier ridge, and the Littorina ridge was deposited above the organic sequence in thepond. At this time(8000 BP) the vegetation was dominated by deciduous forests of an open character.The sequences from the series of fens formed within the system of beach ridgesreveal the natureof late Holocene environmental change. During the centuries before the Viking Agecattle-breeding was important and open grasslands created by grazing prevailed.Utilization of landscape resources increased as the population increased, and a Callunaheath developed around 800 AD. This shows that under special conditions a heath candevelop in an area with low precipitation if the human impact is heavy enough.In 1546 King Gustav Vasa declared Ottenby a Royal Estate and evicted thepopulation from Ottenby village. The Ottenby area was then governed as one coherentunit. This relieved pressure on the landscape and the modern landscape came into being.The pollen sequences corresponding to the time c. 1500 AD and onwards are inaccordance with the information in the written sources.This study also shows that Fagus sylvatica most probably grew on southern Ölandduring the Middle Ages.

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