Temporal and Wavelet Characteristics of Initial Breakdown and Narrow Bipolar Pulses of Lightning Flashes
Sammanfattning: Temporal and wavelet characteristics of initial breakdown pulses are meticulously studied especially during the earliest moment of lightning events. Any possible features during the earliest moment that may exist which lead to either negative cloud-to-ground (CG), positive cloud-to-ground, cloud or isolated breakdown flashes in Sweden are investigated. Moreover, the occurrence of narrow bipolar pulses (NBPs) as part of a CG event that has been recorded from tropical thunderstorms are also included in the investigation. Electric field signatures selected from a collection of waveforms recorded using fast electric field broadband antenna system installed in Uppsala, Sweden and Skudai, South Malaysia are then carefully analyzed in order to observe any similarities or/and differences of their features.Temporal analysis reveals that there are significant distinctions within the first 1 ms among different types of lightning flashes. It is found that a negative CG flash tends to radiate pulses more frequently than other flashes and a cloud flash tends to radiate shorter pulses than other flashes but less frequently when compared to negative CG and isolated breakdown flashes. Perhaps, the ionization process during the earliest moment of negative CG flashes is more rapid than other discharges. Using a wavelet transformation, it can be suggested that the first electric field pulse of both negative CG and cloud flashes experiences a more rapid and extensive ionization process compared to positive CG and isolated breakdown flashes.Further temporal analysis on NBPs found to occur as part of CG flashes show the disparity of the normalized electric field amplitude between the NBPs prior to and after the first return stroke. This indicates that the NBPs intensities were influenced by the return stroke events and they occurred in the same thundercloud. The similarity between the temporal characteristics of NBPs as part of CG flashes and isolated NBPs suggests that their breakdown mechanisms might be similar.
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